Oscar Ichazo (born 1931) is the Bolivian-born psychologist who first developed the spiritual resource known as the Enneagram. The Enneagram focuses on nine personality types that are arranged into a chart resembling a pentagram. Ichazo, a Sufi-inspired mystic, claims to have had out-of-body experiences since childhood. He further claimed that he had received instructions from a highly evolved spirit being called ‘Metatron’ (an archangel mentioned in Gnostic literature) and that this revelation was crucial to the Enneagram project. Richard Rohr and Helen Palmer are committed teachers of this Gnostic way of salvation. Many admirers of the Enneagram are unaware of its occult roots.

Background Notes

The Enneagram diagram was first used by Sufi mystics for pagan fortune-telling. This resource is now used as a tool for character analysis and spiritual direction. It can be described as a sacred map of the soul which helps us to understand the nine ways that we forget our connection with the divine. This is a Gnostic mindset that can be summarised thus: 1) When we are born we live in our divine centre. As babies and toddlers we are sinless, perfect and at one with God. Biblical teaching about original sin is denied. 2) When we are three or four, we develop defense strategies to cope with our emotional pain and this process creates the ego. There are nine kinds of dysfunctional ego states that are caused by bad karma. 3) The Enneagram brings us salvation by removing the ego (false self) and restoring us to union with the divine (true self). We do this through mystical work and self-effort. There is no need for Jesus’ death and resurrection. We find out our particular ego malfunction and then we move like an arrow towards the corrective ego type. For example a ‘1’ (perfectionist) can find liberation and salvation by moving to a ‘7’ (enthusiast).

Four Ways of Looking at the Story

Materialist faith: “We believe that the Enneagram is irrational. Humans are not sparks of the divine. We are consumers so shop till you drop.”

Relativist faith: “We believe that mysticism is great if it works for you. Follow your mystical longings. The Enneagram can help you do this.”

Gnostic faith: “We believe that your true self is identical with the divine. The Enneagram will purify your lost soul (ego) and take you back to the divine One.”

Christian faith: “God is not an impersonal energy force. You cannot find salvation by trusting in the Enneagram. Follow Jesus and trust in His death and resurrection.”

Questions

1) Is the Enneagram dangerous?

2) Why is the Enneagram a Gnostic spiritual resource?

3) Why is the Enneagram popular with Christians?

Mark Roques

Mark Roques

For eleven years Mark taught Philosophy and Religious Studies at Prior Park College, Bath. As Director of RealityBites since 2005, he has developed a rich range of resources for teachers and is a popular speaker at educational conferences in the UK, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, Australia and New Zealand. Mark is the author of three books, including the Religious Education textbook The Good, The Bad and The Misled, and his innovative approach has led him to appear on television (Channel 4) and radio.